Particle General – 助詞 (Jyoshi) まとめ

I believe particle is very difficult for Japanese language learner since there are many kinds of particle and many usages for each particle. Also, there is little clear and easy explanation in Japanese textbook. Here, I will try to pick up useful particle and explain its usage with examples.

In this post, let’s study basic concept and kinds of particles.

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What is particle?

Have you heard of  “が(ga)”, “は(wa)”, “を(wo)”, “の(no)”  in Japanese sentence before?

These are called particles. Particles play the roles of markers in Japanese sentences and are used together with noun or verb or adjective. Never used alone. For example,  particle following noun shows how the noun is related to the predicate of the sentence. Let’s check one example.

Ex)  わたしラーメンべる。

(Watashi wa ramen wo taberu)

ラーメン

In English: I eat ramen.

There are two particles, “は(wa)” and  “を(wo)” in this sentence.

“は(wa)” is used with 私(watashi, it means “I” in English) and shows 私 is subject in this sentence.

“を(wo)” is used with ラーメン(ra-men) and shows ラーメン is object in this sentence.

There are many kinds of particles in Japanese and you may feel it’s confusing at first. 

However, once you master meaning and usage, it will be useful to understand meaning of sentences.

 

List

I made list for main particles as bellow.

Please click link for more detail of each particle.

No. Particle Importance Main Meaning and Usage
1 は(wa) A Subject, Contrast
2 が(ga) A Subject, Subject in a subordinate sentence
3 を(wo) A

Object, Place where motion takes place

4 の(no) A Possessive, Equivalent, Location
5 に(ni) A Indirect object, Location, Point in time, Destination
6 で(de) A Place, Means, Cause
7 へ(e) A Direction of motion
8 か(ka) A Question, Alternative
9 と(to) A Joint word( or Joint phrase), Accompanying person
10 ね(ne) B Agreement (or confirmation)
11 よ(yo) B Emphasis
12 や(ya) B Showing example
13 から(kara) A Starting point
14 まで(made) A Destination
15 までに(madeni) B Time limit
16 より(yori) A Comparison
17 ほど(hodo) B Extent
18 だけ(dake) A Restriction and limitation
19 しか(shika) B Limitation

(A: Important, B: Not so important but useful if you know)

※1 “は” is pronounced as “wa” or “ha” depending on sentence. As a particle, we always pronounce “wa” in sentence.

※2 “へ” is pronounced as “he” or “e” depending on sentence. As a particle, we always pronounce “e” in sentence.

 

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For “Subject (主語)”, check this page.
For “Copula, a is b.”, check this page.

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4 Responses

  1. Ghulam mustafa says:

    These information is very helpful for learner.. for grammer point of view

  2. Edward says:

    This is very useful to the foreign that want to learn nihongo. Like me having problem in composing a sentence because i’m not sure what right particle i need to use. This is helped me a lot. Thank you sensei.

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